born Mai 1818 near Potterne, England
died after 1850
 
©   Kurt Müller 2018
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Grace Duncan
 

Caroline Franklyn

So Alexander and Caroline had evidently migrated to Australia, married, had two daughters, returned to England, had a third daughter and crossed the Atlantic; Grace was their fourth daughter; then they travelled the relatively modest distance to Pennsylvania, where their first son and sixth daughter were born. It is easy to imagine Caroline as typically pregnant, at sea and constantly looking round in case small children disappeared overboard.
 
If they gave their ages correctly, Alexander must have been born between 17/9/1812 and 16/9/1813 and Caroline between 17/9/1817 and 16/9/1818.

CAROLINE FRANKLYN


Christening:   17 MAY 1818   Potterne, Wiltshire, England
Father:­     JOHN FRANKLYN ­ Mother:­MARTHA

John Humphreys

writes

(all the rest of this page)

:
 
"Caroline Franklyn and Alexander Duncan were married at St James' Church, King Street, Sydney on 21st October 1836. It was an Anglican church, and had been consecrated 12 years previously (1824); it is now the oldest church in Sydney still in existence.

Picture below: St James Church, Sydney, designed by the New South Wales Government Architect Francis Greenway. In the collection of the National Library of Australia (Lithograph by Robert Russell, C.1836). The Church is at the western end of King Street.

St James parish lies to the east of St Philip; it includes Sydney Opera House; Royal Botanic Gardens, The Domain, the part of Hyde Park north of Park street [all open parkland]; Circular Quay, and Martin Place. The parish is bounded by the area which was originally the Tank Stream (now Pitt Street near Circular Quay), and George Street in the west. It is bounded by Park Street and part of William Street in the south, and Young Crescent and Woolloomooloo Bay in the east.

According to The Times, insufficient care was taken to select suitable women. Some were said to be from prisons, some were immoral and too many came from towns; the unmet requirement was for sturdy countrywomen who had some idea how a farm worked, not seamstresses for the towns like Sydney.
 
However the paper's real venom was reserved for the superintendent, who supplied insufficient food and clothing and was unsympathetic to the womens needs. The ships master and paying passengers helped in some instances, but women died on the voyage. Two babies were born on the voyage and half a dozen women were pregnant when the ship arrived."

"… I have further to acquaint you, that three ships, with about 200 young women in each, will be dispatched to New South Wales during the present year; the first of which will leave England on the 30th of April, and the periods fixed for the departure of the other two will be about the 10th of August and the 28th of October respectively. And I request that all necessary arrangements may be made for securing to the young women who may arrive by these successive opportunities every possible comfort and accommodation, from the period at which they may arrive in the colony until that at which they may succeed in obtaining suitable situations ..."

"In the selection of suitable ships for the conveyance of the emigrants, in their equipment and provisioning, and in ascertaining the character, competency and fitness of the commander, surgeon and officers, the most anxious care has been exercised to promote the comfort and best interests of the emigrants. In the case of the Layton, however, as already stated to you, the committee have to regret that the result did not fulfil their just expectations; and, to an unfortunate difference between the superintendent and surgeon, the committee attribute, in a great degree, the unsatisfactory state in which some of the females by that ship arrived."

But what was a girl of this age doing on board? Parents were not listed. The vessel carried 301 people, 10 of them called "Mary Anne" with no surname and something like 30 just "Mary", overwhelmingly female and typically born 1805-1817.
 
It turns out that there was a government initiative to find women of marriageable age and ship them out to colonise Australia:

(Despatch from the Earl of Aberdeen to Sir R. Bourke; dated Downing-street, 17 Feb. 1835)

Caroline Franklyn

Estimated Birth Year:  abt 1816,     Age: 17,
Port of Departure:  London
Port of Arrival: Port Jackson, New South Wales
Voyage Arrival Date: 17 Dec 1833
Vessel Name: Layton
Origin Location: London

Background of Caroline Franklyn


 
The marriage registration says nothing about parents or origins. However increasing amounts of data about immigration to Australia have become available through the World Wide Web. New South Wales, Australia, Unassisted Immigrant Passenger Lists, 1826-1922

Average age was said to be 20, and diligent efforts made to ensure they were of good character; any of them under 30 had an assisted passage of sorts. This makes me wonder again about the status of Caroline.
 
The presence of some 40 women who managed to travel without giving surnames also makes me wonder about the supposed guarantee of good character.
 
It seems that Caroline and her fellow emigrants were wretched, ill-fed and poorly treated by their tyrannical superintendent (The Times ran sizeable articles about this in the summer of 1834, and spoke harshly of the Emigration Committee). The Committee had to take due note:

(Emigration Committee Room, 30 Dec 1834)

There is no unified database of English Church records, unlike Scotland. The Mormons IGI (International Genealogical Index) has some ten people born at about the right time  but only one of them spells her surname Franklyn (the rest are Franklin):

There is no further data on her antecedents. Potterne is just south of Devizes.

Free inhabitants in West Philadelphia in the County of Philadelphia, State of Pennsylvania […] 16th Day of September 1850

Alexander Duncan       37   M   Bookkeeper   1600    Scotland

Caroline Duncan       32   F                         England


Caroline Duncan          10   F                         N.S.Wales      
Agnes      9   F                         N.S.Wales      
Eliza      8   F                         England        
Grace      6   F                         New York

      


Franklin      5   M                         Pennsylvania

"1600" is the "Value of real estate owned", presumably dollars.


The oblique stroke is in a column "Attended school within the year".
Free presumably means the census excluded slaves.

Until recently I had not been able to trace Grace Duncan's parents. Births, marriages and deaths in New York were not recorded at the time. However I found them in Pennsylvania in the US 1850 Census (16 Sep 1850):

Groom: Alexander DUNCAN, bachelor, Parish of St Philip

Bride: Caroline FRANKLYN, spinster, Parish of St Lawrence


Married: 21 October 1836
[in] Parish of Saint James
in the County of Cumberland
authority:  License
consent:    not stated
Minister:   Robt. Cartwrighy, Chaplain
Denomination: Church of England
Winesses: W.Beaver of King Street
Vincent Geo. Williams of Elizabeth Street

The official details from New South Wales:

WeddingChurchSidneyKL2

Refs:
# New South Wales Government. Inward passenger lists. Series 13278, Reels 399-560, 2001-2122, 2751. State Records Authority of New South Wales. Kingswood, New South Wales, Australia.
# New South Wales Government. Reports of vessels arrived (or Shipping reports). Series 1291, Reels 1263-1285, 2851. State Records Authority of New South Wales. Kingswood, New South Wales, Australia.
 
Unassisted immigrants are individuals whose passages were NOT subsidized or paid for by another person or through another agency. This collection is composed of two different series of records. They are:    (1) Inward Passenger Lists, (2) Reports of vessels arrived (or Shipping reports); however (1) did not start until 1854.
 
Port Jackson contains Sydney Harbour.

Details of the Layton:

Left London 15th August 1833, arrived Australia 17th Dec 1833.


Vessel details -

Name

Layton

Type

ship

Master

Wade

Weight

513 [tons?]Cargo / other merchandise

born about May 1818 in England (in or near Potterne)
died after 1850

She marrried

Alexander Duncan

on 21st  October 1836 in Sydney, Australia; they had 5 children (or more; see below), among them

Grace Duncan

,

Grace Robertson

's mother

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