geboren 1816 in Surrey, England
gestorben 4. Juni 1887 in Croydon, Australien
©   Kurt Müller 2019
Homepage auf
Homepage in

Caroline Franklyn

John Humphreys

schreibt über Caroline Franklyn:
"Caroline Franklyn and Alexander Duncan were married at St James' Church, King Street, Sydney in November 1836. It was an Anglican church, and had been consecrated 12 years previously (1824); it is now the oldest church in Sydney still in existence.

Bild unten: St James Church, Sydney, erbaut vom Architekten der Regierung von New South Wales, Francis Greenway. In der Sammlung der National Library of Australia (Lithographie von Robert Russell, C.1836). Die Kirche liegt am westlichen Ende der King Street.

So Alexander and Caroline had evidently migrated to Australia, married, had two daughters, returned to England, had a third daughter and crossed the Atlantic; Grace was their fourth daughter; then they travelled the relatively modest distance to Pennsylvania, where their first son and fifth daughter were born. When and where the probably last two daughters, Margaret and Florence, were born is unknown. It is easy to imagine Caroline as typically pregnant, at sea and constantly looking round in case small children disappeared overboard.

St James parish lies to the east of St Philip; it includes Sydney Opera House; Royal Botanic Gardens, The Domain, the part of Hyde Park north of Park street [all open parkland]; Circular Quay, and Martin Place. The parish is bounded by the area which was originally the Tank Stream (now Pitt Street near Circular Quay), and George Street in the west. It is bounded by Park Street and part of William Street in the south, and Young Crescent and Woolloomooloo Bay in the east.

According to The Times, insufficient care was taken to select suitable women. Some were said to be from prisons, some were immoral and too many came from towns; the unmet requirement was for sturdy countrywomen who had some idea how a farm worked, not seamstresses for the towns like Sydney.
However the paper's real venom was reserved for the superintendent, who supplied insufficient food and clothing and was unsympathetic to the womens needs. The ships master and paying passengers helped in some instances, but women died on the voyage. Two babies were born on the voyage and half a dozen women were pregnant when the ship arrived."

"… I have further to acquaint you, that three ships, with about 200 young women in each, will be dispatched to New South Wales during the present year; the first of which will leave England on the 30th of April, and the periods fixed for the departure of the other two will be about the 10th of August and the 28th of October respectively. And I request that all necessary arrangements may be made for securing to the young women who may arrive by these successive opportunities every possible comfort and accommodation, from the period at which they may arrive in the colony until that at which they may succeed in obtaining suitable situations ..."

"In the selection of suitable ships for the conveyance of the emigrants, in their equipment and provisioning, and in ascertaining the character, competency and fitness of the commander, surgeon and officers, the most anxious care has been exercised to promote the comfort and best interests of the emigrants. In the case of the Layton, however, as already stated to you, the committee have to regret that the result did not fulfil their just expectations; and, to an unfortunate difference between the superintendent and surgeon, the committee attribute, in a great degree, the unsatisfactory state in which some of the females by that ship arrived."

But what was a girl of this age doing on board? Parents were not listed. The vessel carried 301 people, 10 of them called "Mary Anne" with no surname and something like 30 just "Mary", overwhelmingly female and typically born 1805-1817.
It turns out that there was a government initiative to find women of marriageable age and ship them out to colonise Australia:

(Despatch from the Earl of Aberdeen to Sir R. Bourke; dated Downing-street, 17 Feb. 1835)

Caroline Franklyn

, Estimated Birth Year:  abt 1816,

Age: 17,
Port of Departure:  London
Port of Arrival: Port Jackson, New South Wales
Voyage Arrival Date: 17 Dec 1833
Vessel Name: Layton
Origin Location: London

Background of Caroline Franklyn

The marriage registration says nothing about parents or origins. However increasing amounts of data about immigration to Australia have become available through the World Wide Web. New South Wales, Australia, Unassisted Immigrant Passenger Lists, 1826-1922:

Average age was said to be 20, and diligent efforts made to ensure they were of good character; any of them under 30 had an assisted passage of sorts. This makes me wonder again about the status of Caroline.
The presence of some 40 women who managed to travel without giving surnames also makes me wonder about the supposed guarantee of good character.
It seems that Caroline and her fellow emigrants were wretched, ill-fed and poorly treated by their tyrannical superintendent (The Times ran sizeable articles about this in the summer of 1834, and spoke harshly of the Emigration Committee). The Committee had to take due note:

(Emigration Committee Room, 30 Dec 1834)

"1600" is the "Value of real estate owned", presumably dollars.

The oblique stroke is in a column "Attended school within the year".
Free presumably means the census excluded slaves.

Nach der Heirat und der Geburts der beiden ältesten Töchter in Australien wanderte die Familie zurück nach England, wo eine weitere Tochter geboren wurde und dann weiter nach Amerika, wo in New York die vierte Tochter, Grace, die Mutter von Grace Robertson, zur Welt kam und ein Jahr später in Pennsylvania der Sohn Franklin. Alle diese Informationen gehen zurück auf den US Census vom 16.September 1850:

Free inhabitants in West Philadelphia in the County of Philadelphia, State of Pennsylvania […] 16th Day of September 1850

Alexander Duncan       37   M   Bookkeeper   1600    Scotland

Caroline Duncan       32   F                         England

Caroline Duncan          10   F                         N.S.Wales      
Agnes      9   F                         N.S.Wales      
Eliza      8   F                         England        
Grace      6   F                         New York


Franklin      5   M                         Pennsylvania  
Kate      2   F  Pennsylvania


# New South Wales Government. Inward passenger lists. Series 13278, Reels 399-560, 2001-2122, 2751. State Records Authority of New South Wales. Kingswood, New South Wales, Australia.
# New South Wales Government. Reports of vessels arrived (or Shipping reports). Series 1291, Reels 1263-1285, 2851. State Records Authority of New South Wales. Kingswood, New South Wales, Australia.
Unassisted immigrants are individuals whose passages were NOT subsidized or paid for by another person or through another agency. This collection is composed of two different series of records. They are:    (1) Inward Passenger Lists, (2) Reports of vessels arrived (or Shipping reports); however (1) did not start until 1854.

Details of the Layton:

Left London 15th August 1833, arrived Australia 17th Dec 1833.

Vessel details -







geboren 1816 in Surrey (jetzt London), England
gestorben 4. Juni 1887 in Croydon, Victoria, Australien
Caroline Franklyn war eine Tochter von John und Martha Franklyn
Sie heiratete

Alexander Duncan

am 21. Oktober 1836 in Sydney, Australien; das Paar hatte
8 Kinder (oder mehr; siehe unten), unter ihnen

Grace Duncan


Grace Robertson

s Mutter.

This page in

Familiengeschichte   Müller - Humphreys